Get this from a library! La cuestión étnica: algunos problemas teórico- metodológicos. [Rodolfo Stavenhagen]. La Cuestión Étnica. Derechos humanos de los pueblos indígenas. Conflictos étnicos y estado nacional. Entre la ley y la costumbre: el derecho. Rodolfo Stavenhagen, sociólogo, investigador y profesor emérito del La cuestión étnica, Derechos humanos de los pueblos indígenas.
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Municipal-level random effects are necessary to properly estimate the regression coefficients for the municipal-level predictors described below. Little Brown and Company; Two different criteria are currently used by the Mexican census to identify the indigenous population. If the household resident does not speak an indigenous language the questionnaire asks whether he or she at least understands an indigenous language.
Pride in their indigenous heritage is not the only possible reason why parents might seek to identify their children as indigenous. Employment in government agencies of this sort is too small to have a large scale effect on indigenous identification. The educational disadvantage of children is measured based on whether they are in a grade at school that is appropriate for their age.
Stigmatization may also play etjica direct role in language loss. Hall Gillette, Patrinos Harry A. Further amendments and new laws followed, including the General Law of Linguistic Rights in As Lutz notes, these findings are consistent with an assimilationist perspective according to which parents of higher socioeconomic status are more integrated into the dominant culture and are therefore less likely to transmit their language of origin to their children. In contrast to the percentage of indigenous language speakers, which generally declines for younger age groups, the relation between the percentage of individuals classified as indigenous using proxy self-identification and age is lz.
While not conclusive, the higher rates of proxy self-identification among younger cohorts is consistent with growing ethnic pride and a reclaiming of indigenous identity for children and young adults. Siglo Veintiuno Editores; As demonstrated in the second part of the statistical analysis, estimates of the educational disadvantage of indigenous children are lower when proxy self-identification is used, which may be due precisely to the fact that greater ethnic pride leads more educated parents to identify their children as indigenous.
Being considered indigenous has historically been stigmatizing, leading many to consciously distance themselves from the indigenous category if at all possible Pitt-Rivers ; Friedlander ; Bonfil Batalla  ; Nutini Racial categories in Latin America are defined by extremely blurred social boundaries. Learn more at Author Central.
On the one hand, we might expect ethnic boundaries to stagenhagen even more fluid and amenable stavenhage change with upward social mobility insofar as they are less influenced by phenotypical differences. New York University Press; However, in the Mexican case the loss of language proficiency among children of indigenous language speakers takes on a greater significance because language proficiency continues to be used to identify the indigenous population by researchers and policy makers e.
The Language Situation in Mexico. Yet we do not know the extent to which such movement is affected by socioeconomic status. Much of this literature has focused specifically on language shift among U. Numerous studies have shown how racial and cuestiin boundaries emerge, and are defended or transformed by social actors Horowitz ; Tilly ; Zolberg and Woon ; Brubaker ; Wimmer a. One possible explanation for the greater retention of indigenous identification among children of more educated parents is that the multicultural discourse promoted cueation indigenous organizations and by the Mexican government in recent decades has resulted in less stigmatization and greater ethnic pride, particularly among cuestioj most educated segments of the indigenous population who are more exposed to the multicultural message.
Support Center Support Center. In Afro-Latin American countries such as Brazil, for example, individuals are classified into multiple categories along a white to black continuum based largely on perceptions of skin color Nobles ; Telles ; Daniel ; Bailey Help us improve our Author Pages by updating your bibliography and submitting a new or current image and biography.
Los indios mexicanos en el umbral del milenio. Bulletin of Latin American Research.
The ability and willingness of parents to classify their cuwstion in a different category as themselves will depend on the exact criteria for ethnic classification. Why Islam is Like Spanish: A Revised and Updated Edition.
Most importantly for our purposes, research on language retention among second generation immigrants in the U. For example, the percentage of children sharing the indigenous classification of their mothers declines by I specifically compare how parental education stzvenhagen how children are identified under the two systems of classification—language proficiency and proxy self-identification.
Structural Changes and Shifts in Racial Classification.
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Somatic and Racial Considerations. Race in Another America: However, sociological research on boundary crossing has focused mostly on Afro-Latin American countries such as Brazil.
Following critics of the quality of instruction at these schools, I will also test whether their presence improves educational outcomes for children in the second part of my statistical analysis. Limiting the analysis in this way also ensures that the method used for classifying the mother and the father is as close as possible to self-identification.
Stevens argues that intergenerational language shift in the U. The same holds true cuestlon generations.
By contrast, the greater tendency for children of more educated parents to be classified as indigenous when proxy self-identification is used as a criterion is more unexpected. Because individuals with higher levels of education will generally be more exposed to the multicultural message and also be more receptive to it, we may expect a greater retention of xuestion indigenous identity among those that are more educated.
This method of ethnic classification based on proxy self-identification is consistent with current practices by the U. For example, if individuals who attain higher levels of education are thereby more likely to be classified in the least disadvantaged racial or ethnic category, then our estimates of racial and ethnic disparities in education will be misleading.
La Jornada: Falleció Rodolfo Stavenhagen, constructor de instituciones
Instead of simply asking whether a household resident was indigenous, the census specifically asked whether the household member considered him or herself to be indigenous. Similarly, Francis and Tannuri-Pianto find that higher family socioeconomic status is associated with lighter racial self-classification among Brazilian college students. In such studies the racial and ethnic categories into which individuals are classified are assumed to be relatively well-defined and stable over time.